Cultura

CUBA ES EL PAÍS DESARROLLADO MÁS SOSTENIBLE DEL MUNDO

El nuevo índice de desarrollo SDI mide el mpacto de las emisiones de cada país en relación con sus ingresos, educación y esperanza de vida.

La definición de país desarrollado está cambiando. Durante muchos años se usaba el PIB per capita, una medida muy criticada, especialmente en un mundo desigual, donde la riqueza acumulada por unos pocos millonarios hace que la media se más alta, incluso cuando una gran parte de la población vive en la pobreza.

La medida habitual es el índice de desarrollo humano (HDI, Human Development Index), usado por el Programa de Desarrollo de las Naciones Unidas para generar los informes anuales que a menudo se ven en la prensa.

Para calcular el índice de desarrollo humano se tienen en cuenta los valores de la esperanza de vida al nacer, el índice de educación, dependiente de los años de formación a los que tienen acceso las personas, y por último, el logaritmo del PIB per capita, lo que hace que los valores altos tengan menos representación.

En el índice HDI están en cabeza Dinamarca, Suiza, Irlanda, Alemania y Hong Kong. España ocupa el puesto 25, por debajo de Eslovenia, pero por encima de Francia. En la cola están países como Chad, Niger o Sudan.

Sin embargo, en este índice falta algo importante: la conservación de los recursos del planeta. El desarrollo a costa de la destrucción del medio ambiente no es sostenible. El antropólogo Jason Hickel ha desarrollado un índice ajustado a la sosteniblidad llamado SDI (Sustainable Development Index).

Se calcula dividiendo el índice de desarrollo HDI por el “exceso ecológico”, que mide cuánto excede la huella de carbono per capita los límites naturales en el planeta Tierra. Si un país consigue altos ingresos, educación y esperanza de vida a costa de mayores emisiones de efecto invernadero, su índice SDI será menor.

Esto cambia el mapa del desarrollo por completo. Los tres países desarrollados más sostenibles son Cuba, Costa rica y Sri Lanka. Esto quiere decir que tienen el mayor desarrollo humano relativo a sus emisiones. España baja hasta el puesto 112 de un total de 163, pero está por encima de Suiza, en el 150, Noruega, en el 157 y por supuesto EEUU, que ocupa la cola en el 159 junto con Australia o los Emiratos Árabes.

Según Hickel, el desarrollo con altas emisiones se produce a costa del subdesarrollo de otros países, lo cual es una “profunda contradicción”.

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