Salud

Dormir bien para no engordar

La falta de sueño está asociada al riesgo de desarrollar obesidad y diabetes tipo 2, según datos de varios estudios epidemiológicos. En este sentido, la Sociedad Española de Endocrinología y Nutrición (SEEN) señala que dormir poco produce un amento de concentración de la ghrelina, una hormona secretada principalmente por la mucosa gástrica que estimula la ingesta.

A la vez, la falta de sueño reduce los niveles de leptina, procedente del tejido adiposo, que tiene efecto saciante. Esta subida y bajada de niveles hormonales favorece un comportamiento alimentario que promueve la ganancia de peso.

La carencia de sueño “tiene como consecuencia un modelo de estrés y activación del sistema nervioso simpático que puede traer consigo el desarrollo de obesidad abdominal y resistencia a la insulina. Ambos fenómenos aumentan la probabilidad de desarrollar diabetes y otras complicaciones como hipertensión arterial”, explica Javier Salvador, miembro del Área de Neuroendocrinología de la SEEN.

En los casos en los que existe apnea obstructiva del sueño, los fenómenos derivados de la intermitente disminución de oxígeno en los tejidos también contribuyen al deterioro metabólico y al aumento de la masa grasa.

Por todo ello, la falta de sueño durante la noche tiene como consecuencia una somnolencia diurna y un cansancio que favorece el sedentarismo, lo que también promueve el desarrollo de obesidad y diabetes.

En palabras del doctor Salvador, “la apuesta más segura para mantener una buena salud metabólica es seguir una dieta mediterránea, en la que predominen frutas y verduras, así como fibra y grasas de origen vegetal y en la que se preste especial atención en lo relativo a limitar el consumo de carne roja y grasas animales. Esto debe ir acompañado de una frecuente actividad física, siempre adaptada a las circunstancias clínicas individuales, y de un periodo de descanso nocturno regular de una duración de 7 u 8 horas”.

SUEÑO DE CALIDAD.

La Academia Americana de Medicina del Sueño (AASM, por sus siglas en inglés) explica que hay tres claves para conseguir y mantener un sueño saludable: la cantidad, la calidad y la regularidad.

En cuanto a la cantidad, detalla que la mayoría de los adultos necesita al menos 7 horas de sueño nocturno para alcanzar un óptimo estado de salud y productividad. Asimismo, apunta que algunas personas necesitan dormir más de 7 horas por la noche para estar descansadas durante el día.

Por ello, esta entidad aconseja irse a la cama lo suficientemente temprano para poder dormir 7 o más horas por la noche.

Respecto a la calidad, la Academia Americana de Medicina del Sueño subraya la importancia de dormir bien. “Dormir 7 horas cada noche no es suficiente, pues es necesario que el sueño sea de calidad”, recalca.

Así, recomienda evitar durante la tarde aquellas sustancias que pueden alterar el sueño como el alcohol, la cafeína o el tabaco.

Además de la cantidad y la calidad, es fundamental la regularidad. “El sueño saludable forma parte del ritmo de vida diario, por lo que es importante dormir a la hora correcta. Además, dormimos mejor por la noche, cuando hay oscuridad”, precisa esta entidad.

Su recomendación es intentar levantarse todos los días a la misma hora e irse a dormir cuando se sienta sueño.

Dormir poco o mal no solo favorece la ganancia de peso, también dificulta su pérdida. De hecho, el estudio “Predimed-Plus, Prevención con Dieta Mediterránea”, publicado en “International Journal of Obesity”, indica que tener un patrón de sueño variable y de corta duración se asocia con dificultades para reducir peso y grasa corporal.

En este trabajo, llevado a cabo por los investigadores de la Unidad de Nutrición Humana de la Universidad Rovira i Virgili y del Centro de Investigación Biomédica en Red de Fisiopatología de la Obesidad y Nutrición (Ciberobn), en colaboración con otros grupos de investigación, se evaluó a 1.986 pacientes que siguieron un programa intensivo de intervención en el estilo de vida para perder peso.

Dicho programa estaba basado en una dieta mediterránea baja en calorías, actividad física y terapia conductual.

Los científicos observaron que quienes, al comienzo del estudio, no dormían las mismas horas cada noche, presentaron una menor pérdida de peso a los 12 meses de seguimiento.

Además tener un sueño variable y dormir poco (menos de 6 horas diarias) se asoció a una menor disminución del índice de masa corporal y de la circunferencia de la cintura, respectivamente.

“Estos resultados ponen de manifiesto que adoptar medidas para conseguir un patrón de sueño adecuado puede tener un impacto a la hora de mantener el peso y prevenir otras alteraciones metabólicas asociadas al exceso de grasa corporal”, manifiestan los especialistas de Ciberobn.

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