Politica

El debido proceso durante los estados de excepción

En artículo anterior, comentamos sobre los derechos que son suspendidos durante el estado de emergencia y en esa oportunidad decíamos que este mismo estado de emergencia es previsto por la constitución y los derechos que los estados de excepción suspenden.

Por lo que en esta ocasión, quiero ver el estado de excepción desde el debido proceso. Esto, debido a que el poder judicial resoluto para habilitar la jurisdicción de atención permanente para conocer los casos que se suscitaran durante el estado de excepción, ampliando su competencia para que pueda decidir todas las cuestiones que surgieren en ocasión del estado de emergencia.

El Poder judicial habilitó 36 oficinas de Servicio de Atención Permanente distribuidas por todo el país para que realicen conferencias virtuales en base a un protocolo que facilite la videoconferencia como mecanismo de aislamiento, mientras se garantiza la protección de derechos fundamentales que puedan reclamarse mediante vistas para medidas de coerción, el habeas corpus y las acciones de amparo.

Según el acta 002-2020 de sesión extraordinaria celebrada por el Consejo del Poder Judicial en fecha 19 de marzo, se dispuso mantener en funcionamiento, únicamente, las Oficinas Judiciales de Servicios de Atención Permanente de la Jurisdicción Penal en todo el territorio nacional, las cuales, además de sus atribuciones ordinarias, atenderán los casos de urgencia tendentes a la protección de derechos fundamentales que puedan reclamarse mediante el hábeas corpus y las acciones de amparo.

Es así que todos los abogados que teníamos personas en condición de vulneración de sus derechos fundamentales, acudimos de manera excepcional, ante una situación de excepción, al tribunal habilitado para garantizar dichos derechos y en los cuales, debía observarse el debido proceso.

Sin embargo y ante esta realidad excepcional, se agrega el elemento de la audiencia virtual, la cual, por su naturaleza, implicaba, en sede penal, vulneración de algunos de los principios del debido proceso que deben ser observado en estamateria, como lo es la inmediación, por mencionar alguno.

Fueron muchos los que alzaron su voz de alerta con respecto a la vulneración de algunos principios del debido proceso penal en la celebración de las audiencias virtuales, con lo cual, tuve mis reservas, hasta que constaté por vía de algunos colegas y con un caso personal, que ciertamente, el espacio virtual se prestaba y ha sido así, para pasar por alto algunos principios fundamentales del debido proceso, que aún, en estado de excepción deben mantenerse.

Es entonces que analizando la situación y el derecho interno, pude reafirmar que ciertamente tenemos un ordenamiento completo, vanguardista y alineado con los principios internacionales del debido proceso, sin embargo, nuestra falencia se ubica en la efectividad de los recursos que tenemos para la protección de los derechos fundamentales, es decir, llevar la realidad del papel a la práctica.

Así que me puse a leer para conocer la experiencia de otros países y ver  cómo habían manejado el debido proceso, aquellos que al igual que nosotros, en el pasado, o en el presente, han tenido que manejar situaciones de emergencia y como han hecho para preservar el debido proceso.

Al echar un vistazo en el derecho internacional, principalmente aquellos instrumentos que para nuestro ordenamiento tienen rango constitucional, podemos ver que en la Convención Americana de Derechos Humanos, aborda el tema de la efectividad cuando el artículo 25.1 incorpora el principio, reconocido en el derecho internacional de los derechos humanos, de la efectividad de los instrumentos o medios procesales destinados a garantizar tales derechos.

Pero en ese mismos sentido, y viéndolo desde nuestro estado de excepción, encontramos que la Corte Interamericana ha señalado que el concepto de debido proceso legal recogido en el artículo 8 de la Convención Americana debe entenderse como aplicable, en lo esencial, a todas las garantías judiciales previstas para la protección de los derechos fundamentales, aun bajo los denominados estados de excepción (Garantías Judiciales en Estados de Emergencia. Opinión Consultiva OC-9/87, del 6 de octubre de 1987, párrafo 29., 1987)

En este sentido, para la Corte Interamericana los principios del debido proceso legal no pueden suspenderse con motivo de los estados o regímenes de excepción, en cuanto constituyen condiciones necesarias para que los instrumentos procesales para proteger los derechos fundamentales puedan considerarse como efectivas garantías judiciales, en especial los procesos de amparo y hábeas corpus. ((Garantías Judiciales en Estados de Emergencia. Opinión Consultiva OC-9/87, del 6 de octubre de 1987, párrafo 30 y 41.3), 1987)

Para la Corte, la suspensión de las garantías puede ser, en algunas hipótesis, el único medio para atender a situaciones de emergencia pública y preservar los valores superiores de la sociedad democrática. Pero no puede la Corte, como tampoco nosotros hacer abstracción de los abusos a que puede dar lugar,y que en nuestro país han tenido lugar en ocasión del estado de emergencia.

Y es que debe entenderse que la suspensión de garantías carece de toda legitimidad cuando se utiliza para atentar contra el sistema democrático, que dispone límites infranqueables en cuanto a la vigencia constante de ciertos derechos esenciales de la persona.

Es innegable el hecho de que la suspensión de garantías constituye también una situación excepcional, según la cual resulta lícito para el gobierno aplicar determinadas medidas restrictivas a los derechos y libertades que, en condiciones normales, están prohibidas o sometidas a requisitos más rigurosos. En interés propio y de la colectividad, deben restringirse y limitarse ciertos derechos, pero al mismo tiempo deben respetarse y garantizarse la protección mínima de los mismos.

Esto no significa, sin embargo, que la suspensión de garantías comporte la suspensión temporal del Estado de Derecho o que autorice a los gobernantes a apartar su conducta de la legalidad a la que en todo momento deben ceñirse. Es más, me atrevo a decir, que en situaciones de emergencia la autoridad debe hacer mayor alarde de su conducta, pues resulta cuesta arriba e incongruente que una autoridad llame a la obediencia de la ley, cuando actúa desde la desobediencia de la misma.

Estando suspendidas las garantías, algunos de los límites legales de la actuación del poder público pueden ser distintos de los vigentes en condiciones normales, pero no deben considerarse inexistentes ni cabe, en consecuencia, entender que el gobierno esté investido de poderes absolutos más allá de las condiciones en que tal legalidad excepcional está autorizada.

Durante este periodo excepcional, hemos sido testigo de excesos, abusos, arbitrariedades, ilegalidades, violaciones groseras al debido proceso, omisiones de algunas autoridades y otras tantas conductas de autoridades y funcionarios que se apartan del debido proceso usando como excusa el estado de emergencia.

Hemos estado en una situación excepcional, donde adquiere mayor relevancia la eficacia de los mecanismos que tenemos para la protección de los derechos fundamentales, derechos que siempre deberán estar en vigencia y que deben ser protegidosmediante la eficacia de los mecanismos que han sido creados para ese fin. Deben entenderse, que en condiciones excepcionales, pierde sentido y efectividad la exigencia de formalidades que por el mismo estado de excepción son de imposible cumplimiento, formalidades que no deben sobreponerse al interés de resguardar el derecho fundamental de que se trata.

El debido proceso en nuestro ordenamiento, es una conquista que aun está en pañales, pero ya lo tenemos, hemos dado ese paso de avance, lo que resta ahora es hacer efectivos todos los principios y mecanismos del debido proceso de ley, cuestión esta que no es tan sencilla como el cambio de normativa, es necesario un cambio en la educación de la población con relación a sus obligaciones y a sus derechos pero sobre todo, al respeto de la ley. Al tiempo que las autoridades deben tener como norte defender y mantener en todo momento el respeto y mantenimiento del debido proceso de ley.

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