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El exitoso método de Alemania

«Una razón por la que tenemos tan pocas muertes en comparación con el número de personas infectadas es que hacemos muchas pruebas, medio millón a la semana» explica el principal virólogo de Alemania, Christian Drosten.

El número de estas pruebas ha aumentado en las últimas semanas gracias a una gran red de laboratorios. Ya en enero, el Hospital Charite de Berlín, donde trabaja Drosten, había informado a sus homólogos sobre cómo producir las pruebas para detectar el nuevo virus. Su uso generalizado explica en parte la tasa de mortalidad mucho más baja en Alemania que en otras partes

Aunque el número de infectados por el virus en Alemania llega a casi las 66.000 personas, la cifra de muertos es de 616 (hasta el lunes 30 de marzo).

Mientras Alemania hace un promedio de medio millón de test por semana, otros países europeos, como Italia o España, hacen una media que va entre los 50.000 y los 100.000 test por semana.

Los virólogos del hospital Charite de Berlín creen que se necesitarían hacer tres veces más test que los actuales para tener una idea fiel del número de infectados por el virus, aunque creen que habría tres veces más afectados y que el número entonces se acercaría a las 200.000 personas.

Alemania tiene el mayor número de camas en Europa; aún así lo están ampliando

La toma de conciencia más temprana que en otros países y las numerosas pruebas han ahorrado tiempo y han preparado a los hospitales para una mayor afluencia de casos graves que requieren cuidados intensivos y asistencia respiratoria.

Además, Alemania tiene el mayor número de camas en Europa para enfrentar un problema sanitario de estas características. Y el número de plazas se va a duplicar y ya ha pasado de 20.000 a 30.000, según el presidente de la Asociación Médica Alemana. Francia, con una capacidad de recepción mucho menor, ha optado por trasladar a sus enfermos, en particular en el este del país, a hospitales alemanes.

Entretanto, como medida preventiva, los alemanes han aplazado las operaciones que no suponen un peligro inminente para la vida de los pacientes con intervenciones programadas y se está capacitando al personal para utilizar el equipo. Alemania también ha separado claramente a los pacientes de Covid-19 de los demás en los hospitales, incluso a su llegada, para evitar un contagio innecesario.

Alemania no ha optado por una estricta cuarentena, como lo han hecho Francia o Italia.

Ya hay quienes se preguntan sobre las condiciones y el calendario para flexibilizar las medidas.

¿Hacia una estrategia coreana?

Un documento interno del Ministerio del Interior, que varios medios de comunicación publicaron el pasado viernes 27 de marzo, pide que se retomen las soluciones adoptadas en Corea del Sur, a saber, pruebas masivas para poder averiguar a gran escala quiénes están infectados antes de que se les aísle del resto de la población.

Un método que permite a las personas sanas seguir llevando una vida normal y a la economía funcionar. Esta opción significaría aumentar el número de pruebas realizadas a 200.000 por día para finales de abril. Bosch anunció el jueves que un método rápido, con resultados disponibles después de dos horas y media, podría ser entregado en abril.

Esas medidas, si se adoptan, podrían permitir a Alemania, siempre que la crisis no sea demasiado grave, reducir antes las restricciones actuales.

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