Estrés y adolescencia: la peor combinación para la memoria futura

Según este estudio del CSIC, estas alteraciones se deben a una maduración diferente de las vías de regulación del estrés a causa de las experiencias estresantes en la adolescencia.

Estrés y adolescentes, una buena combinación. Según un estudio liderado desde el Instituto de Neurociencias, centro mixto del Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas (CSIC) y la Universidad Miguel Hernández, ha demostrado que los roedores sometidos a estrés en la etapa peripuberal (el periodo crítico alrededor de la pubertad) muestran una tasa de aprendizaje más lenta en la edad adulta, así como comportamientos relacionados con la ansiedad.

Los resultados de este estudio indican que es la capacidad de recuperación del nivel basal de corticosterona, el equivalente al cortisol en humanos, liberada en respuesta al estrés repetido en la adolescencia, y no la cantidad de esta hormona, la que predice el grado de alteración del aprendizaje que se experimentará en la edad adulta.

Estos hallazgos allanan el camino a nuevos estudios que identifiquen los mecanismos tanto de vulnerabilidad como de resistencia a los traumas tempranos: «Los efectos de programación del estrés temprano podrían necesitar un período de incubación capaz de revertirse en cerebros jóvenes y más plásticos, pero no durante la edad adulta. Por tanto, tras la detección temprana de los individuos vulnerables al estrés, podría haber una ventana de oportunidad para que la intervención terapéutica en la adolescencia evite el curso natural hacia la psicopatología y las deficiencias cognitivas”, destaca la investigadora Cristina Márquez, que dirige el laboratorio de Circuitos Neuronales de la Conducta Social del Instituto de Neurociencias en Alicante.

Los peligros del estrés desde edades tempranas

En conjunto, los resultados de este estudio sugieren que el período peripuberal sería una ventana temporal en la que el estrés puede conducir a cambios a largo plazo en la reactividad del eje hipotálamo-pituitaria-adrenal, que estarían relacionados con las dificultades en la capacidad de aprendizaje observada en la vida adulta.

«Nuestros resultados sugieren que el grado de adaptación del eje hipotálamo-pituitaria-suprarrenal inducido por el estrés en el importante período de transición de la pubertad se relaciona con la programación a largo plazo de la cognición, el comportamiento y la reactividad endocrina», señala la investigadora Stamatina Tzanoulinou, primera autora del estudio.

Cuando se habla de estrés en niños y adolescentes no se habla de estrés laboral como los adultos, también hablamos del estrés deportivo (presión familiar incluso), estrés escolar (no sólo las notas, también el acoso), familiar, social… Dejemos que los niños sean niños el máximo tiempo posible.



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