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Fibromas uterinos pueden tener un costo emocional para las mujeres

La carga psicológica y social de los fibromas uterinos es comparable con la de las enfermedades cardiovasculares, la diabetes o el cáncer de mama, encontraron investigadores de Johns Hopkins Medicine en una revisión de 57 estudios de investigación sobre la calidad de vida de mujeres con fibromas uterinos comparada con la de personas que padecen enfermedades crónicas.

Estos hallazgos, publicados en la edición del 1 de noviembre de 2020 de American Journal of Obstetrics & Gynecology, insinúan que los fibromas uterinos, también conocidos como miomas, afectan la calidad de vida de una mujer no solo física sino también emocionalmente. Lo que es más, tener fibromas puede llegar a ser incapacitante desde el punto de vista de los dolores corporales, la salud mental, el desenvolvimiento social y la satisfacción con la vida sexual.

Los fibromas uterinos constituyen el tumor ginecológico benigno de mayor prevalencia y suelen afectar hasta al 80 por ciento de las mujeres en edad de procrear. Están formados a partir de células musculares lisas y de tejido conectivo fibroso, y su causa se desconoce. En una de cada cuatro mujeres con fibromas los síntomas pueden incluir menstruaciones abundantes, anemia, dolor o sensación de presión en el abdomen, aumento de la frecuencia urinaria e infertilidad o abortos espontáneos repetidos.

“Más de la mitad de las mujeres estadounidenses presentarán fibromas, de manera que su repercusión global es considerable, pero no ha recibido suficiente atención”, indica James H. Segars Jr., doctor en medicina y director del Departamento de Ciencia Reproductiva e Investigación sobre la Salud de la Mujer, y catedrático de Ginecología y Obstetricia en la Facultad de Medicina de la Universidad Johns Hopkins.

Las mujeres con fibromas, señala el estudio, pueden sufrir efectos debilitantes derivados de la preocupación, el miedo, la ansiedad, la inseguridad, los sentimientos de impotencia, los problemas con la imagen de sí mismas y la depresión. Además, los hallazgos han demostrado que la falta de control fue una de las causas principales de sufrimiento emocional.

Los fibromas uterinos rara vez son malignos

Los fibromas afectan a siete de cada 10 mujeres

“Para algunas mujeres, lo imprevisible y la intensidad del sangrado abundante y otros síntomas asociados a este trastorno son mucho más que un inconveniente”, afirma el doctor Segars. “Muchas mujeres sufren en silencio y sienten que no pueden salir o tomar parte en actividades sociales porque podrían comenzar a sangrar en cualquier momento”.

El tratamiento de los fibromas uterinos depende de la gravedad de los mismos. Se puede administrar medicamentos para contribuir a reducir su tamaño o se los puede extirpar mediante cirugía. Dado que cada año se realizan aproximadamente 600,000 histerectomías como resultado de fibromas, estos tumores son la segunda causa más frecuente de operaciones en las mujeres premenopáusicas.

 

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