Politica

HOMICIDIO INVOLUNTARIO: VICTIMA DE SU PROPIO HECHO

El derecho penal dominicano describe cuales son lasconductas que de ser realizadas por cualquier ciudadanaserán sancionadas con penas. Para esto, código penal prescribe el resultado de una acción humana como presupuesto general para la existencia de un hecho considerado penal, es decir, una infracción, un crimen o un delito.

Como regla general, siempre que exista un resultado que lesione un bien jurídico protegido y que esté previsto en el código penal, estaremos frente a una infracción, crimen o delito. La calificación de estos hechos se hará de acuerdo a las penas que conlleve cada uno, según el artículo 1 de la misma norma.

Por lo que es la ley penal que dice cuales hechos son delitos y en cuales casos o bajo cuales circunstancias la misma ley, dispone que de verificarse estas, los hechos no serán considerados delitos. Es decir, que la misma ley penal, por el principio de legalidad, (nulla poena sine lege, que significa que no hay pena sin ley previa que contenga el delito) debe especificar los hechos que considera delitos pero del mismo modo, cuales no lo son y más aun, en cuales condiciones los delitos pueden ser excusables, cuales hechos eximen de responsabilidad penal al autor de un delito, o en cuales supuestos las personas no se les puede imputar la comisión de un ilícito penal.

Por otra parte y como complemento del tipo objetivo, también está el tipo subjetivo, en el cual deben verificarse la intención del autor de causar ese resultado o su nivel de conocimiento o de previsión sobre ese resultado, esto quiere decir haber sido realizada con dolo o, al menos, de modo imprudente.

Dentro de este tipo subjetivo, a su vez, la teoría del delito y el código penal incorporan las dos formas en que una conducta penalmente relevante puede ser realizada: el dolo, de una parte, y la imprudencia, de otra.

Dicho de manera llana, toda acción del ser humano que lesione un bien jurídico protegido y se encuentre descrito y sancionado por la ley penal, es un delito. Esta es la parte objetiva de todos los delitos, pero para su construcción, también es necesario la parte subjetiva y esta tiene que ver con la intención de la persona que ha ocasionado la lesión al bien jurídico, y esta es la parte subjetiva en la cual verificaremos las intenciones, negligencia o imprudencia con la que haya actuado el infractor.

En este caso, nos vamos a limitar a tratar el delito por imprudencia u homicidio involuntario. Tal y como lo que dispone el artículo 319 del Código Penal Dominicano sobre el homicidio involuntario, el que por torpeza, imprudencia, inadvertencia, negligencia o inobservancia de los reglamentos, cometa homicidio involuntario, o sea causa involuntaria de él, será castigado con prisión correccional de tres meses a dos años, y multa  de veinte y cinco a cien pesos.

Es decir que la comisión del delito conlleva la exigencia de una conexión subjetiva entre el autor y su hecho, de forma que, la imposición de una pena requerirá siempre, además de la causación de un resultado lesivo para un bien jurídico, la imputación subjetiva de ese hecho a su autor.

Como podemos ver, el código solo menciona el término de la imprudencia, como parte subjetiva del delito de homicidio y con ello, este se queda en el rango de delito por la pena a imponer cuyo máximo se ubica en los dos años. Lamentablemente, en nuestro código penal no se aportan más elementos para poder entender y aplicar esta circunstancia que podría, bajo ciertos presupuestos, atenuarconsiderablemente la responsabilidad al autor de un hecho penal, lo que podría causar a la víctima, una sensación de impunidad.

Por lo anterior, la doctrina es la que se ha encargado de estudiar la imprudencia, aportando elementos objetivos, dentro de lo subjetivo, para que esta pueda ser tomada en cuenta al momento de atenuar la pena de un homicidioimprudente o involuntario. Es de este modo que, la doctrina, no el código penal, ha determinado que pueden darse dos supuestos característicos en los delitos imprudentes, lo que nos brinda dos escenarios diferentes, por un lado no podemos encontrar ante una imprudencia consciente o una imprudencia inconsciente.

En los delitos imprudentes conscientes el autor del hecho tiene un conocimiento de la posibilidad del resultado, pero la descarta por la expectativa de que no se dará el resultado. De otra parte, está la imprudencia inconsciente, hechos en el cual, el autor del hecho no tiene conocimiento de la posibilidad de producción del resultado, pero que debía haberlo tenido y así haber evitado el resultado producido.

Como la imprudencia, en cualquiera de sus manifestaciones, no es una circunstancia que normalmente se puede apreciar a simple vista, es necesario que estas se verifiquen en el proceso de investigación y finalmente ponderadas por el juzgador al estudiar los hechos, sus responsables y las circunstancias en las que se produjeron los mismos.

Es en este escenario que el juzgador debe realizar a los hechos un juicio de previsibilidad sobre la persona del infractor, analizando más allá de los resultados conocidos,si éste pudo obtener o tenía los conocimientos necesarios para realizar la actividad que dió al traste con el resultado lesivo y si desde la perspectiva del autor, se podía prever objetivamente la ocurrencia del resultado.

El juicio de previsibilidad, debe indicar al juzgador, si el autor no actuó con el suficiente cuidado al no prever el riesgo o riesgos que asumía actuando de la forma en que lo hizo, de manera que objetivamente, pueda concluirse que cualquier persona en la situación del autor, hubiese podido comprender y prever los riesgos de la acción y por ende, los resultados que pudo haber evitado, pero que no lo hizo.

En las actividades humanas, sean estas de entretenimiento o no, existen mayores o menores riesgos, llegando algunas a denominarse extremas al colocar a quienes realizan estas actividades en un riesgo máximo.  Ante estas actividades, el derecho permite un margen de riesgo y permite la realización de actividades que por sí mismas son altamente peligrosas, pero que obliga sean realizadas en apego estricto de las medidas de precaución que proceda según el tipo de actividad.

Esto quiere decir que la norma, en su contenido axiológico contiene principios intrínsecos de deber, que buscan que el ciudadano actúe con prudencia, en cualquier caso, pero con una exigencia mayor en circunstancias, actividades o situaciones que impliquen peligro.

Como expresábamos anteriormente, la imprudencia en el Código Penal Dominicano, no contiene una definición ni los elementos que deben tomarse en cuenta para determinar que se actuó imprudentemente, ni los niveles de imprudencia, pero corresponde al juzgador que conozca el caso, deducir la construcción hecha por la doctrina para despejar todas esas dudas y ajustar debida y legalmente la conducta descrita en la norma, al hecho por juzgar e imponer la pena dentro del rango establecido por el Código Penal.

El causante del resultado se encuentra expuesto a ser, a la vez, víctima de sus propios actos, en la medida en que la causación de consecuencias que no ha querido, o ni siquieraha previsto, puede  resultar desagradable incluso para élmismo.

En conclusión, en el caso que consterno a la sociedad, en elcual, dos jóvenes, al parecer, pretendían practicar en plena calle, boxeo, y que según el video que circulo en las redessociales y medios, uno de ellos cae al pavimento comoconsecuencia de un golpe y penosamente pierde la vida.

Muchos son los que me han preguntado mi opinión al respecto y por la experiencia que los años en el área penal me han ofrecido puedo concluir, que el derecho no es una ciencia exacta como las matemáticas y emitir unaconclusión de un caso sin tener todas las circunstancias y detalles a mano, podría ser arriesgado y peligroso, pues en material penal, nada es blanco y negro, existe la posibilidad de matices grises, que son circunstancias que puedencambiar dramáticamente la suerte de un caso que, a simple vista se ve sencillo y cuya solución a nuestros ojos, resultaobvia.

En este caso particular y por la poca o imprecisa información que manejo, es un hecho notorio el deceso del joven, por una acción causada por otro joven que le acompañaba en su actividad. Se ha producido la muerte de alguien, como consecuencia de una acción realizada, por lo tanto, existe violación a la ley penal, existe una afectación a un bien jurídicamente protegido como es la vida y de ahí, la descripción del homicidio involuntario contenido en el artículo 319 del Código Penal Dominicano que citamos en principio y cuyo hecho conlleva sanción penal.

Será necesario ante este desenlace, que el ministerio público realice una investigación seria, minuciosa y sobre todo objetiva, sobre las circunstancias en las que se produjoesta vulneración a un bien jurídicamente protegido como es la vida, y que sea el juzgador, quien tenga en sus manosunos hechos investigados conforme a la ley, y pueda determinar las consecuencias que deberá enfrentar el jovenpor el resultado de su acción, de acuerdo a lo que hemosexplicado y a las demás circunstancias propias del procesado que debe tener en cuenta un juez al momento de determinar la responsabilidad penal y la sanción a imponer.

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    2020-06-04 at 2:11 am

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