Tecnologia

Mejor conectividad, más turismo

El concepto “conectividad” proviene del verbo conectar, que se refiere a crear un vínculo común, enlazar un todo. La conectividad en el ámbito aéreo es la razón de ser de las líneas aéreas, y tiene que ver con la capacidad de enlazar a los distintos países y ciudades que componen el mundo, para transportar recursos (pasajeros, carga y correo), de un territorio a otro. Gracias a la industria aérea los países se conectan a través de una red de transporte, a nivel global, que posibilita la movilización de individuos, intercambio de bienes y servicios, y correos.

No existe una medición específica para la conectividad; sin embargo, ésta puede ser medida en función de dos características de las redes, a saber: tamaño y concentración, y fluidez.

En lo concerniente a tamaño y concentración, mientras mayor sea el número de rutas y frecuencias, mayor será la posibilidad de conexión para un estado. Sin embargo, la utilización de dicha capacidad de conexión (pasajeros, carga y correo), definirá el verdadero grado de conectividad de un país.

La fluidez se refiere a que, rutas más directas, con el menor número de conexiones posibles, facilitan el tráfico aéreo. Los procesos de embarque, desembarque, los controles y los tiempos de conexión en los aeropuertos influyen en la calidad de la conectividad.

La estructura del sector aéreo está conformada por la oferta, representada por las líneas aéreas que brindan el servicio de transporte, la infraestructura aeroportuaria y de navegación aérea que posibilita el flujo y la administración de los vuelos en tierra y en el aire.

Las aerolíneas crean su red de rutas y frecuencias de punto a punto y establecen sus hubs (centro de conexión) para ofrecer vuelos indirectos dependiendo de las características e importancia económica de cada destino y la demanda esperada por tipo de consumidor. Por ende, tomarán la decisión de operar vuelos en países donde el Estado se los permita, cuidando que su factor de ocupación esperada justifique su inversión.

Los aeropuertos, por su parte, son la infraestructura terrestre necesaria para albergar y sostener el flujo de frecuencia de vuelos, las terminales donde se efectúa el embarque y desembarque, se abastecen de combustible, se realiza el mantenimiento a los aviones y se estacionan temporalmente las aeronaves entre vuelos. Asimismo, es el espacio físico donde se realizan las formalidades requeridas por aerolíneas y el estado (check-in -revisión de pasaportes y documentos-, seguridad, migración y aduanas). También se alojan tiendas que ofertan bienes y servicios diversos. Finalmente, se encuentran los proveedores de servicios de aeronavegación, necesarios para ordenar el tráfico aéreo y velar por la seguridad de los vuelos.

Para mejorar la conectividad, es necesario que estos tres componentes de la oferta trabajen de manera coordinada (aerolíneas, aeropuertos y proveedores de servicios de aeronavegación).

La demanda aérea, por su parte, está constituida básicamente por cuatro tipos de consumidores: a) turismo o recreación; b) visitas familiares/amigos y viajes de estudios; c) viajes de negocios; y d) transporte de carga y correos.

Los turistas buscan viajar a destinos atractivos con infraestructuras turísticas adecuadas, son flexibles con la fecha de viaje y consideran el precio un factor importante para la elección del destino. Los que viajan a eventos no son flexibles en la fecha, pero el precio es determinante para realizar el viaje o no. Los que visitan amigos y familiares son flexibles en las fechas y buscan tarifas económicas, pero no tiene capacidad de elección del destino.

Por otro lado, se encuentran los viajeros de negocios los cuales se trasladan a destinos donde tienen intereses económicos y asisten a eventos internacionales públicos o privados, priorizan la rapidez, disponibilidad de vuelos y conexiones, no le otorgan gran importancia al precio del boleto, buscan flexibilidad de cambio de fechas y destinos.

El transporte de carga y correo, en este caso la elección de trasladar los bienes por vía aérea va de la mano de un análisis costo-beneficio de la vida útil de su producto, su peso y/o tamaño, costo de traslado y valor de venta al consumidor. La vía aérea es el medio de transporte más costoso, pero el más rápido para llegar al mercado destino.

Cabe destacar, que los gobiernos son los responsables de otorgar los permisos, certificar y regular la operación de la industria aérea en sus respectivos territorios.

La interacción entre Estados se da principalmente en el marco de acuerdos bilaterales o multilaterales denominados ASA (Acuerdo de Servicios Aéreos), donde cada país delimita los derechos aerocomerciales para el uso de su territorio por otros Estados, con el fin de transportar pasajeros, carga y/o correo.

Estos acuerdos usualmente delimitan diversas características que definirán el tamaño y concentración de la red de conectividad del país, como son las rutas y aerolíneas permitidas, número de frecuencias, libertades del aire autorizadas, entre otros factores relevantes. En consecuencia, la conectividad será mayor mientras más liberal sea el marco regulatorio, es decir, en los Estados donde los ASA sean menos restrictivos y flexibles para facilitar la operación y desarrollo de la industria.

El Estado influye en la calidad de la conectividad ofrecida a los usuarios de los servicios aéreos. No solo se limita a establecer los derechos aerocomerciales dentro de su territorio, sino que se encarga de diversas tareas estratégicas que permiten una adecuada operatividad del sector, a través de las Autoridades de Aeronáutica Civil de cada país (seguridad, plan de aeropuertos, sistema de aeronavegación, coordinación con aduanas, migración y otras entidades oficiales).

Por último, consideramos que parte del éxito que ha tenido la República Dominicana, como destino turístico, se puede atribuir a los siguientes factores o buenas prácticas vinculadas a la aeronavegación:

1.- Una política aérea de cielos abiertos flexible.

2.- La concertación Acuerdos de Servicios Aéreos (ASA).

3.- Desarrollar acciones de facilitación migratoria.

4.- Una infraestructura aeroportuaria adecuada.

5.- Establecer acuerdos con líneas aéreas y turoperadores.

6.- En el marco del Estado regulador se ha propiciado una buena coordinación entre los organismos con tareas estratégicas en la operatividad de los aeropuertos como son la seguridad, sistema de aeronavegación, aduanas, migración y otras entidades oficiales.

7.- Participación de los sectores vinculados a la aeronavegación en foros y espacios de discusión y concertación.

Finalmente, creemos que para la formulación de una estrategia que mejore la conectividad aérea de un destino, por el lado de la demanda, hay que determinar las necesidades de transporte aéreo de los usuarios, para adecuar la oferta, tanto la que concierne a las entidades públicas (organismos de regulación del Estado), como las concernientes a las empresas del sector privado (aerolíneas, aeropuertos y empresas de servicios de aeronavegación), que gestionan el transporte aéreo.

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