Salud

Niños y pantallas, algunas soluciones

El uso excesivo de dispositivos con pantalla por parte de los niños se acentuó durante la pandemia debido a las cuarentenas, confinamientos y restricciones de desplazamientos que obligan a las familias a permanecer más tiempo en casa, pero el problema viene de antes, señalan los expertos, quienes explican cómo remediarlo.

Durante los lapsos de encierro domiciliario, destinados a evitar la proliferación de la COVID-19, muchas familias se vieron obligadas a teletrabajar, mientras que los más pequeños quedaron bajo el amparo de los móviles, las tabletas y la televisión, señalan desde la Universitat Oberta de Catalunya (UOC).

Estas herramientas también se convirtieron en el principal recurso educativo con el que conectarse a las clases en línea y seguir aprendiendo y, al acabar la jornada lectiva, los momentos de ocio individual y en familia se vieron reflejados en los mismos dispositivos, apunta esta universidad (www.uoc.edu).

“¿Se abusó de las pantallas? Sí. Pero aunque se haya podido acentuar en estos últimos meses, el abuso de las pantallas viene de atrás”, señala Manuel Armayones, profesor de los Estudios de Psicología y Ciencias de la Educación de la UOC.

“En los niños, una exposición abusiva a estas tecnologías puede generar un excesivo malestar, irritabilidad y aislamiento. A largo plazo, la actividad sedentaria puede alterar las horas de sueño y provocar problemas de sobrepeso u obesidad”, advierte.

Algunos estudios, publicados en revistas científicas, también sugieren que el uso excesivo de las pantallas en menores podría lastrar su desarrollo cognitivo. De ahí la necesidad de romper el vínculo de dependencia con la tecnología, es decir, de una ‘desconexión digital’, según la UOC.

Armayones, experto en el impacto de estas nuevas tecnologías,  aporta algunos consejos para desenganchar a los niños de las pantallas, “aprovechando los periodos de calma para desconectar del móvil y pasar más tiempo en familia alejados de las pantallas, de cara a un futuro incierto, en el que existen rebrotes y podría haber nuevos confinamientos, debido a la pandemia”.

UNAS NORMAS CLARAS.

“Hay que mantener una conversación sincera con los niños para que entiendan la razón de que no pueden estar todo el día ‘enganchados’ y deben seguir algunas normas. Hay que explicarles qué se puede y no se puede hacer con el móvil, cuánto tiempo le pueden dedicar y en qué momentos hay que reducir su uso”, recomienda.

Como norma se recomienda que los menores de 2 años no hagan un uso rutinario de las pantallas; que los de 3 a 5 años las usen un máximo de 30 minutos diarios; y que los de 6 a 12 años las usen hasta una hora al día. De los 13 a 16 años, el límite recomendable es de dos horas diarias, según la UOC.

NEGOCIAR EL TIEMPO DE USO.

“Dado que cada niño es diferente, las condiciones de uso se deberían pactar. Si un niño se porta bien y tiene buen rendimiento escolar, a veces podemos dejarle el móvil un ratito más. Cuando el uso de estas herramientas le genera un problema (si cambia su comportamiento o le crea una cierta adicción), hay que restringir su uso”, explica el experto.

“También hay que aclararles que en periodos de exámenes, será necesario reducir el uso de estas herramientas”, apunta.

OFRECER ALTERNATIVAS ANTES QUE PROHIBIR.

“Los límites del uso del móvil pueden ser más llevaderos si se ofrece una alternativa, como actividades o juegos al aire libre, que son claves para el desarrollo de los más pequeños y con las que se lo pasan bien y andan entretenidos”, señala Armayones.

Otras actividades recreativas son: practicar deporte, pintar, hacer manualidades, leer un cuento o pasar un rato en familia. “Es lo que se ha hecho toda la vida. No tiene más secretos”, explica.

Por su parte, la psicóloga Gabriela Paoli (www.gabrielapaoli.com), especialista en adicciones tecnológicas y autora del libro ‘Salud Digital’, uno de cuyos capítulos ofrece pautas y consejos de uso saludable de las nuevas tecnologías para niños y adolescentes, recomienda a los padres:.

ACEPTAR PARA REMEDIAR.

“Muchos padres no han introducido los móviles en la vida de sus hijos de la manera más recomendable. Lo primero que tienen que hacer es reconocer ese error. Es recomendable que hablen con los niños, les digan que se han confundido y hay que reconducir la situación y les propongan hacer una reunión familiar en la que cada uno exprese cómo se siente”, señala a Efe.

“Hay que recordar a nuestros hijos que el móvil no ha de ser una fuente de conflictos y discusiones, sino un aliado en el ocio y la comunicación”, recalca, añadiendo que “es una buena ocasión para hablar en casa de valores como la reflexión, la humildad y el saber pedir perdón y rectificar a tiempo”.

DIÁLOGO Y VÍNCULO AFECTIVO POSITIVO.

Según Paoli, “muchas veces se tiende a la imposición y a dictar órdenes sin explicarlas ni razonarlas. Pero es muy importante que exista un diálogo con los pequeños y explicarles de manera razonada los riesgos de un mal uso o abuso de la tecnología a su alcance, así como los beneficios de su uso saludable y adaptativo”.

“Si los padres se comunican desde el respeto, la empatía, asertividad y la solidaridad, su relación con sus hijos será sólida y cercana. Habrá unos cimientos fuertes a la hora de resolver conflictos y tensiones a nivel familiar. Y serán un modelo positivo y sano de comunicación y conducta”, destaca.

HACIA UNA FAMILIA TECNOSALUDABLE.

“Como padres debemos tener claro cuáles son nuestras prioridades y valores, para que nos guíen en cada momento. Si lo más importante es la familia, tendremos que dedicar tiempo a disfrutarla y fortalecer nuestros vínculos”, señala Paoli.

“Es de vital importancia mantener rituales, costumbres y celebraciones familiares y con amigos, para mantener un contacto y unas relaciones interpersonales que fomenten el aprendizaje y fortalecimiento de las habilidades sociales y emocionales”, apunta.

Como padres, “debemos desconectarnos de nuestras pantallas para poder conectarnos con nuestros hijos, haciendo una buena gestión del tiempo de ocio y de las actividades lúdicas, deportivas, creativas, que se comparten en familia”, según esta experta.

“Estas actividades y momentos reales, les aportarán a nuestros hijos alegría, ilusión y muchísimas otras cuestiones básicas para su desarrollo y crecimiento. Y sobre todo, los alejarán de la imperiosa necesidad de los dispositivos electrónicos”, concluye.

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