General

TRABAJADORES DOMESTICOS Y SUS DERECHOS EN CUARENTENA

La Constitución Dominicana: ¿Un papel de juguete?Según la constitución en su artículo 62, el trabajo es un derecho, un deber y una
función social que se ejerce con la protección y asistencia del Estado. Por lo
que, es finalidad esencial del Estado fomentar el empleo digno y remunerado.
Los poderes públicos promoverán el diálogo y concertación entre trabajadores,
empleadores y el Estado.   Es decir que todos tenemos la libertad de realizar el trabajo que nos permita
desarrollar nuestras habilidades y con éste adquirir los recursos para suplir las
necesidades propias y de la familia, ya que la misma constitución lo proscribe
como un derecho fundamental, cuando ella misma establece que todos
podemos dedicarnos a un trabajo digno y tenemos derecho de su elección, a fin
de proveer el sustento propioy el de su familia para alcanzar el
perfeccionamiento de su personalidad y contribuir al bienestar y progreso de la
sociedad;
En nuestro país, existe una gran cantidad de trabajadores de las distintas áreas,
modalidad, condiciones, y entre ellos aquellos que nos asisten en el hogar con
los quehaceres propios del mantenimiento del hogar y el cuidado de niños y/o
adultos mayores.
En ese sentido, y con relación a este tipo de trabajo, la constitución en el literal
11 del artículo 55 dispone que el Estado reconoce el trabajo del hogar como
actividad económica que crea valor agregado y produce riqueza y bienestar
social, por lo que se incorporará en la formulación y ejecución de las políticas
públicas y sociales.
Estos trabajadores del hogar, llamados legalmente trabajadores domésticos ya
que según el Código de Trabajo de la República Dominicana (Ley 16-92,
promulgada el 29 de mayo de 1992), en su artículo 258, dispone que los
trabajadores domésticos son: “los que se dedican de modo exclusivo y en forma
habitual y continua a labores de cocina, aseo, asistencia y demás, propias de un
hogar o de otro sitio de residencia o habitación particular, que no importe lucro o
negocio para el empleador o sus parientes”.
Estos trabajadores domésticos o del hogar, en la actualidad realizan estas
labores de diferentes modalidades de acuerdo al convenio de las partes, quienes
ajustan las condiciones en las que realizarán su labor.
En esta situación actual, en la que el país se encuentra enfrentando una lucha
con una pandemia y que ha obligado como resultado del estado de emergencia,
y el distanciamiento social, que estos trabajadores, al igual que es resto, se ha
visto obligado a mantenerse en casa y suspender sus labores.

Dado el estado de emergencia y el cese de las labores económicas normales, el
Estado ha dispuesto de un programa que ha denominado FASE, o fondos de
asistencia solidaria al empleado, programa mediante el cual ha pretendido
palear un poco la presión económica de los empleados suspendidos.
Es en ese orden de ideas, éste programa de asistencia solidaria, tiene dentro de
sus requisitos o condiciones para accesar a dichos beneficios el empleador debe
tener registrado al o los empleados en el SDSS y tener al día los pagos con la
TSS.
Cabe señalar que la Tesorería de la Seguridad Social, tiene, entre otras
funciones la responsabilidad del recaudo, distribución y pago de los recursos
financieros del Sistema Dominicano de Seguridad Social  (SDSS), y de la
administración del sistema único de información.
Entonces qué pasa con las (los) trabajadores domésticos para que puedan,
durante este periodo de emergencia y de distanciamiento social, sobrellevar la
carga económica en sus casas y si es el empleador quien está en la obligación
de cubrir esta necesidad durante la cuarentena, son solo algunas de las tantas
preguntas que se plantean tanto empleadores como empleados domésticos.
La realidad es que el Sistema Dominicano de Seguridad Social establece lo que
llama regímenes de financiamiento y que establece en su artículo 7 de la Ley 87-
01 que crea el Sistema Dominicano de Seguridad Social.

Estos Regímenes de financiamiento del Sistema Dominicano de Seguridad
Social  (SDSS) estará integrado por los siguientes regímenes de financiamiento:
a) Un Régimen Contributivo, que comprenderá a los trabajadores asalariados
públicos y privados y a los empleadores, financiado por los trabajadores y
empleadores, incluyendo al Estado como empleador;
b) Un Régimen Subsidiado, que protegerá a los trabajadores por cuenta propia
con ingresos inestables e inferiores al salario mínimo nacional, así como a los
desempleados, discapacitados e indigentes, financiado fundamentalmente por el
Estado Dominicano;
c) Un Régimen Contributivo Subsidiado, que protegerá a los profesionales y
técnicos independientes y a los trabajadores por cuenta propia con ingresos
promedio,
De estos tres regímenes la misma ley dispone que no se implementarán de
inmediato y según el principio de gradualidad que dispone la ley, para la
implementación de los sistemas, se dispone en el artículo 8 que el Consejo
Nacional de Seguridad Social (CNSS) someterá al Poder Ejecutivo un calendario
de ejecución gradual y progresiva de la cobertura de los Regímenes Subsidiado
y Contributivo Subsidiado en lo que concierne al Seguro Familiar de Salud y al

Seguro de Vejez, Discapacidad y Sobrevivencia, priorizando la protección de los
grupos con mayores carencias de las provincias de mayor índice de pobreza.
Esto significa que el único régimen de financiamiento que tenemos en la
actualidad es el Régimen Subsidiado, y las trabajadoras domésticas no cumplen
las condiciones para pertenecer a éste, sino, que se ajustarían al grupo de
trabajadores que refiere el artículo en el apartado c con respecto al Régimen
Contributivo Subsidiado.

Esto quiere decir, en términos llanos y para responder las inquietudes y dudas al
respecto, que los trabajadores domésticos no califican para el programa FASE,
porque no pueden cotizar en la TSS, ya que mientras el régimen no sea puesto
en funcionamiento, estos no pueden estar inscritos en Sistema Dominicano
de Seguridad Social  (SDSS), ya que el régimen al cual estas aplicarían, aún no
ha entrado en vigencia, es decir, no se está utilizando.

Ante esta realidad el empleador, que par los fines de la relación laboral es ama
de casa, es decir, una persona física no moral, no se trata de una empresa o
actividad lucrativa, no tiene obligación legal que disponga que éste empleador
doméstico deba inscribir a su empleado (a) en el Sistema Dominicano
de Seguridad Social, que esté cotizando en la TSS y éste pueda beneficiarse del
programa FASE.

La Seguridad Social es parte de la política social de los Estados modernos y la
misma se encuentra entre los derechos individuales y sociales amparados por la
Constitución de la República ya que esta prevé en su artículo 60 que toda
persona tiene derecho a la seguridad social.

El Estado estimulará el desarrollo progresivo de la seguridad social para asegurar el acceso universal a una
adecuada protección en la enfermedad, discapacidad, desocupación y la vejez y,
por lo tanto, deben ser garantizada por el Estado dominicano y esta situación
actual en la que se encuentran los trabajadores domésticos, implica
indiscutiblemente una limitación para el disfrute de su derecho a la seguridad
social.
Es por lo anterior que podemos afirmar, haciendo acopio de lo propio previsto
por Ley 87-01 que crea el Sistema Dominicano de Seguridad Social (SDSS)
según el cual éste  deberá proteger a todos los dominicanos y a los residentes
en el país, sin discriminación por razón de salud, sexo, condición social, política
o económica; Además, por disposición de la misma ley de seguridad social la
afiliación, cotización y participación tienen un carácter obligatorio para todos los
ciudadanos e instituciones, en las condiciones y normas que establece la
presente ley; y todas las personas, sin distinción, tendrán derecho a una
protección suficiente que les garantice el disfrute de la vida y el ejercicio
adecuado de sus facultades y de su capacidad productiva;

Aunque la ley La Seguridad Social Ley 87-01 que crea el Sistema Dominicano
de Seguridad Social se desarrolla en forma progresiva y constante con el objeto
de amparar a toda la población, mediante la prestación de servicios de calidad,
oportunos y satisfactorios, tiene ahora el mejor escenario para que todos los
ciudadanos de la República Dominicana podamos gozar de una seguridad social
que sea segura y social.

Mientras, el empleador solo le resta tener un gesto de solidaridad con su
empleador domésticos, en la medida de sus posibilidades y bajo el entendido,
que este mismo empleador a la vez empleado, pueda estar cesante en sus
labores también y sin disfrute de los beneficios del programa FASE.

En cuanto a los trabajadores domésticos, si no están bajo la situación de que su
empleador pueda seguir pagándole todo o parte de su salario, ya que no está
obligado, pueden también, optar por otras opciones de los programas de ayuda
que está llevando a cabo el gobierno y que de acuerdo a su condición personal.

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